Descubrimiento de América (12.10.1492)

Como se organizó e inició el viaje del Descubrimiento de América. Cristóbal Colón nació en Génova, Italia. Fue un navegante, cartógrafo, almirante, virrey y gobernador general de las Indias Occidentales al servicio de la Corona de Castilla.

El descubrimiento de América constituye el más importante de los acontecimientos de la modernidad. Es un resultado que tienen sus causas en los cambios particulares y generales que se producían en el siglo XV.

Son muchas las causas del descubrimiento de América, pero hay una que es la más importantes de todas, la cual es, la necesidad que tenían los europeos de buscar la entrada de especias procedente del oriente, sin tener que pasar por Constantinopla, que había sido conquistada por los turcos; la idea era buscar una ruta mercantil para evitar pagar los altos impuestos que cobraban los turcos, ya que las especias eran básicas para la dieta, como para la conservación de las carnes.

Cristóbal Colón era un visionario entusiasta, creía en sus proyectos, es por esta razón y en su seguridad que decide acercarse a los Reyes Católicos, presentarle su proyecto y que estos lo aceptaran. Además tenía el apoyo de personajes claves de la corte castellana.

En la negociación con los reyes, Colón exigió que se le concediera el titulo hereditario de Almirante del Mar Océano, el cargo de virrey y gobernador además del diez por ciento de las ganancias del descubrimiento.

El 17 de abril de 1492 se firmaron las Capitulaciones.
La Capitulaciones de Santa Fe fueron pactadas por Fray Juan Pérez, representante de Colón y Juan de Coloma, secretario de Fernando el Católico. Es un documento suscrito por sus majestades en la localidad de Santa Fe en las afueras de Granada y que señala los acuerdos alcanzados con Cristóbal Colón relativos a la expedición que se planeaba hacia el desconocido occidente.

La Corona procuró dos carabelas que encargó a los vecinos de Palos de Moguer por mandato real, así como también solicitó a las ciudades costeras de Andalucía, abastecimientos y pertrechos militares. Se eximió a Colón del pago de derechos y se le concedió la categoría de Embajador de Sus Majestades ante el Gran Khan.

No resultó fácil al genovés reunir una tripulación. Para los marineros, Colón era un desconocido con fama de iluso, por lo que les sorprendió el respaldo que suponía el real documento leído en la iglesia de San Jorge, en mayo de 1492. Martín Alonso Pinzón prestó a Cristóbal un apoyo decisivo, gracias a la intervención de fray Juan Pérez y procuró la leva de la tripulación para las tres carabelas, ya preparadas. En junio de 1492 comenzó el alistamiento.

VIAJE DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO
Con tres carabelas, la Pinta, la Niña y la Santa María (esta última propiedad de Juan de la Cosa, quien embarcó en ella como maestro o piloto), bajo el mando, respectivamente de Martín Alonso Pinzón, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón y del mismo Colón, se hicieron a la mar el 3 de agosto de 1492 en el puerto de Palos y se dirigieron hacia las islas Canarias, donde permanecieron unos dias para reparar algunos desperfectos de la Pinta y la Niña y para que Colón realizara algunas visitas antes de zarpar el océano.

Continuaron viaje el primero de septiembre desde Las Palmas. Dos incidentes notables ocurrieron en la lenta travesía: la desviación observada en la aguja de la brújula (que achacaron a la variación de la latitud), y el creciente nerviosismo de los marineros, después de un mes de navegación sin resultados. La inquietud se hizo crítica el 7 de octubre, poco antes de avistar tierra.
Colón y los hermanos Pinzón colaboraron para sofocar algunos conatos de rebelión.

En la madrugada del 12 de octubre, Rodrigo de Triana, lanzó el grito de ¡TIERRA! La expedición arribó a una islita del archipiélago de las Bahamas, que los naturales conocían por Guanahaní y que el marino llamó San Salvador (probablemente la actual isla VVatling). Colón tomó posesión de ella en nombre de la Corona de Castilla y Aragón, treinta y dos días después de salir de las Canarias.

Tras recorrer varias islas, en las que se detuvo poco, llegó el 27 de octubre, guiado por las noticias recibidas de los arauacos, a una isla mayor, Cuba. Desembarcó en el puerto de Bariay en el extremo oriental de la isla, que bautizó con el nombre de Juana.

Entrando por la bahía que él denominó San Nicolás, Colón llegó a la isla por la parte norte , el 5 de diciembre de 1492. Colón y sus compañeros encontraron que la isla estaba habitada por una gran población de amistosos indios Taínos (Arawacos), quienes le dieron la bienvenida a los exploradores.
Colón estableció un asentamiento improvisado en la Costa Norte, cerca de la ciudad actual de Cap Haïtien, el cual llamó La Navidad (por ser el 25 de diciembre). Usó los restos de la carabela Santa María, que había dado contra un arrecife coralino y zozobrado.
La tierra “descubierta” era fértil, pero lo más relevante para los españoles fue la gran cantidad de oro, el cual intercambiaban por trueque con los nativos, quienes se adornaban con joyas, o extrayéndolo de los depósitos aluviales de la isla.
Los taínos llamaban a la isla Ayti o Hayti (tierra montañosa). En principio, cuando los españoles llegaron, fueron amigables , pero luego respondieron violentamente contra la intolerancia y abusos de los colonizadores.
Colón inició el regreso a España el 16 de enero de 1493. La Pinta y la Niña se separaron en el camino debido a una tempestad. Los hermanos Pinzón llegaron en la Pinta a Galicia y el Almirante, en la Niña (que había recalado en las Azores, donde tuvo dificultades legales con los portugueses de las islas) arribó al puerto de Lisboa. Después de muchos inconvenientes regresó a Palos, desde donde se trasladó a Barcelona, para reunirse con los Reyes Católicos, que le recibieron como correspondía a la magnitud de la empresa realizada.
Ya para el segundo viaje del Almirante a la Hispaniola en 1493, encontró que el fuerte de la Navidad había sido arrasado y eliminados sus habitantes. No obstante a esto, no pudo detener detener el interés del Viejo Mundo en la expansión y su cruzada de “esparcir el Catolicismo” excusa utilizada por lo colonizadores para ocupar estas tierras; Colón estableció un segundo asentamiento, La Isabela, más hacia el Este, en la misma Zona Norte.
Los colonizadores trataron en múltiples ocasiones de establecer colonias en la costa norte de la Hispaniola, pero finalmente se estableció el primer asentamiento permanente en el Nuevo Mundo en la costa Sur de la isla, Santo Domingo.
Con el control de los colonizadores españoles, se nombró la isla entera con el nombre de Santo Domingo. Los indicios de la presencia de oro y una población de nativos dóciles, los cuales eran explotados como obreros , fue el anzuelo para atraer a muchos españoles durante los primeros años. La mayoría , simples aventureros que, por lo menos inicialmente, estaban más interesados en adquirir rápidamente riqueza mas que en asentarse en la tierra.
La creencia de que había llegado a la India hizo que Colon llamara indios a los habitantes del Nuevo Mundo.

De las consecuencias del descubrimiento de América, la más importante la constituye el encuentro de los mundos Europeo-Americano, a partir de la experiencia histórica de “La Española”.

Información obtenida de la Historia Dominicana y del historiador Juan Carlos Stefan (Historia Dominicana en Gráficas)

Pilar Lomba

82 comentarios en “Descubrimiento de América (12.10.1492)”

  1. Todo muy bonito… felicitaciones!!!
    Me encantó leer sobre el descubrimiento de America aunque algunos detalles más hubieran sido necesarios para reafirmar como los españoles ademas de imponer su cultura tambien hicieron mucho daño a la población y sustrajeron lo que mas pudieron de la riqueza de aquellos hombres…. pero está muy bien hecho este blog..me gustó mucho, La única cosa que no entiendo es porque tiene una parte en Italiano??? Se que el admin de este blog tiene ciudadanía italiana.. pero es que se siente más italiana que dominicana???

    1. Muchas gracias por comentar, en realidad el artículo está en Español, pero algunos contenidos de la página están en Italiano porque nuestra sede principal se encuentra en Roma, Italia.

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